Northern Ireland and the Troubles Northern Ireland is a region of scenic beauty, rich culture and Celtic charm — but its recent history has been marred by political tension, sectarianism and terrorism. Between and the world watched in despair as Northern Ireland was wracked by unrest and violence that bordered on civil war. Trouble had in fact been brewing in Northern Ireland for generations. Northern Ireland evolved into a self governing member of the United Kingdom.
The British Army, deployed to restore order in Belfast in It was a complex conflict with multiple armed and political actors.
The Northern Ireland conflict had elements of insurgency, inter-communal violence and at times approached civil war Another angle of the conflict was sectarian or communal violence between the majority unionist or loyalist Protestant population and the minority Catholic or nationalist one.
This was manifested in inter-communal rioting, house burning and expulsion of minorities from rival areas as well as lethal violence including shooting and bombing.
Though not the principle focus of their campaign, republicans also killed significant numbers of Protestant civilians. The IRA called a ceasefire infollowed shortly afterwards by the loyalist groups, leading to multi-party talks about the future of Northern Ireland.
The conflict was formally ended with the Belfast or Good Friday Agreement of Definition British troops in Belfast, This name had the advantage that it did not attach blame to any of the participants and thus could be used neutrally.
Nevertheless its impact on society in Northern Ireland — an enclave with a population of about 1. Northern Ireland comprised six north eastern counties of Ireland in the province of Ulster. It left out three Ulster counties with large Catholic and nationalist The troubles in northern ireland Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan but included two counties, Fermanagh and Tyrone with slight nationalist majorities.
Ina boundary commission that had been expected to cede large parts of Northern Ireland to the Irish Free State proposed no major changes.
Even its limited modifications were never implemented and the border stayed as it was. From untilNorthern Ireland functioned as a self-governing region of the United Kingdom. The Unionist Party formed the government, located at Stormont, outside Belfast, for all of these years.
Its power was buttressed by a close association with the Protestant fraternal organisations such as the Orange Order. Northern Ireland was created in for unionists who did not want to be part of a self-ruled Ireland, but contained a substantial minority of Catholic nationalists. Additionally, in local government, only rate payers, who were more often Protestants than Catholics, had a vote.
Catholics also complained of discrimination in employment and the allocation of social housing, and also protested that their community was the main target of the Special Powers Act which allowed for detention without trial.
The unionists buttressed their political power with systematic discrimination against Catholics. There was also a lack of official recognition of Irish nationality in Northern Ireland. The Irish language and Irish history were not taught in state schools.
However most nationalists in the North traditionally voted for the moderate Nationalist Party. There was an ineffective, mostly southern-based IRA guerrilla campaign against Northern Ireland from tobut with little nationalist support within the North and faced with internment on both sides of the border, it achieved little.
Their aim was to end the discrimination against Catholics within Northern Ireland. This led to increasingly bitter rioting between the Catholic population, especially in Derry, and the RUC.
The unrest culminated in a series of severe riots across Northern Ireland in Augustin which 8 people were killed, hundreds of homes destroyed and 1, people displaced.
In Belfast, the rioting developed into street fighting between Catholics and Protestants during which an entire Catholic street — Bombay Street — was burned out.
The British Army was deployed to restore order and was initially welcomed by Catholics. British soldiers look on at burned out houses in Belfast in the August The riots marked a watershed.
The IRA split into two factions, with the more militant, the Provisionals, claiming the existing organisation had failed to defend Catholics during the rioting.
They were determined to launch a new armed campaign against Northern Ireland. The other faction, known as the Officials favoured building a left wing political party and fostering unity among the Catholic and Protestant working class before attempting to achieve a united Ireland.
However it was the Provisionals who would go on to dominate. British troops were initially welcomed by Catholics as their protectors but were rapidly drawn into a counter-insurgency campaign against Republican paramilitaries.
In the initial sweep no loyalists at all were detained. Even those opposed to violence, such as the SDLP, walked out of the Stormont Parliament and led their supporters in a rent and rates strike. As a result, many republicans would depict the armed campaign of the following 25 years and defensive and retaliatory.
A republican mural depicts the Falls Curfew. Courtesy of the Extramural Activities website.This is a list of notable bombings related to the Northern Ireland "Troubles" and their aftermath.
It includes bombings that took place in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Great Britain since There were at least 10, bomb attacks during the conflict (–).
Image caption Some Conservative MPs want a "statute of limitations" to prevent security force members being prosecuted for offences early in the Troubles A defence minister has called for changes. Jul 11, · BELFAST, Northern Ireland — The Troubles here ended in the late s, when Catholic nationalists seeking independence from Britain buried the hatchet with Protestant unionists loyal to .
The Northern Ireland conflict was a thirty year bout of political violence, low intensity armed conflict and political deadlock within the six north-eastern counties of Ireland that formed part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The CAIN (Conflict Archive on the INternet) Web site contains information and source material on 'the Troubles' and politics in Northern Ireland from to the ph-vs.com is also some material on society in the ph-vs.com is located in Ulster University and is part of INCORE and ph-vs.com and INCORE launched the Accounts of the Conflict Web site in November Northern Ireland and the Troubles Northern Ireland is a region of scenic beauty, rich culture and Celtic charm – but its recent history has been marred by political tension, sectarianism and terrorism.