See results Forest Denudation This is a phenomenon where forest soil is strip by erosion or weathering. It is also known that tropical rain forest is the most diverse terrestrial ecosystem on earth. The Philippines economy and ecology are greatly dependent on this rich ecosystem. The forest provides renewable sources of food, fiber, medicine, lumber and other wood products which keep our economy alive.
Past changes in sea level[ edit ] Changes in sea level since the end of the last glacial episode See also: Past sea level Understanding past sea level is important for the analysis of current and future changes.
In the recent geological past changes in land ice and thermal expansion from increased temperatures are the dominant reasons of sea level rise. This was during the last interglacialwhen the earth warming was caused by slow changes in the orbital forcing.
The warming was sustained over a period of thousands of years and the magnitude of the rise in sea level implied a large contribution from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. The rate of rise started to slow down 8. Additionally, Earth gravitation and rotation have to be accounted for.
These factors are dependent on the different layers which make up the Earth lithosphereasthenosphereand the order in which land-based ice melts. Because the involved processes, which are collectively known as the Sea-level equation, change very slowly, on time scales of thousands of years, they are considered to be constant.
It was followed by the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on Jason-2and by Jason-3 Satellite measurements of sea level, in millimeters, — April. A microwave radiometer corrects any delay that Problems in the hydrosphere be caused by water vapor in the atmosphere.
Combining this data with the precise location of the spacecraft makes it possible to determine sea-surface height to within a few centimeters about one inch.
It had caused a slight overestimation of the — sea levels, which masked the ongoing sea level rise acceleration.
In the — period for instance, sea level rose substantially in the western tropical Pacific. In contrast to the satellite record, this record has a lot of spatial and temporal gaps.
This network was used, in combination with satellite altimeter data, to establish that global mean sea-level rose Some of the recorded regional differences are due to differences in the actual sea level, while other are due to vertical land movements.
In the United States for instance, considerable variation is found because some land areas are rising and some are sinking.
Over the past years, the rate of sea level rise varied from an increase of about 0. The rate of sea level rise increased during the — period compared with the longer-term average —although it is unclear whether the faster rate reflected a short-term variation or an increase in the long-term trend.
Ice sheet dynamics Close-up of Ross Ice Shelfthe largest ice shelf of Antarctica, about the size of France and up to several hundred metres thick.
There are three main contributions to sea level rise. Oceans expand if they are warming, glaciers at high altitudes melt and the total mass of ice sheets decreases. Sea level rise in the last years was dominated by retreat of glaciers and expansion of the ocean, but the contributions of the two large ice sheets Greenland and Antarctica is expected to increase in the 21st century.
Much of this precipitation began as water vapor evaporated from the ocean surface. To a first approximation, the same amount of water appeared to return to the ocean in icebergs and from ice melting at the edges. Scientists previously had estimated which is greater, ice going in or coming out, called the glacier mass balanceimportant because a nonzero balance causes changes in global sea level.
The rate of ice loss is accelerating. For instance, an average temperature increase of the entire world ocean by 0. Of course, when the ocean gains heat the water expands and this represents a component of global sea-level rise.
The thermal expansion of water increases with temperature and pressure of the water. Hence, cold Arctic Ocean water will expand less for a given increase in temperature compared to warm tropical water.
Because different climate models have slightly different patterns of ocean heating, they do not agree fully on the predictions for the contribution of ocean heating on sea level rise. Under the influence of global warming, melt at the base of the ice sheet increases.
Simultaneously, the capacity of the atmosphere to carry precipitation increases with temperature so that precipitation, in the form of snowfall, increases. Furthermore, the additional snowfall causes increased ice flow which leads to further loss of ice.
The East Antarctic Ice Sheet does not contribute much and scientists are not able to determine whether it gains or loses mass. All datasets generally show an acceleration of mass loss from the Antarctic ice-sheet, but with interannual variability some years more, some less so. This area is dominated by small accumulations of snowfall which become glacial ice and thus eventually seaward glacial flows.
The mass balance of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet as a whole over the period — is thought to have been slightly positive lowering sea level or near to balance, with a large degree of uncertainty.
This alone was sufficient to raise the sea level at 0. Further, thinning rates for the glaciers studied in — had increased over the values measured in the early s. Annual temperatures based on Byrd Station central West Antarctica from to increased linear by 2.Glossary of Water Resource Terms.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A abandoned water right a water right which was not put to beneficial use for a. Investigating the Hydrosphere.
Formal Project. Water Purification and Quality. Grade 10 Physical Science. Caps 2 Annexure 2.
Hydrosphere is the part of the earth which, combines all the water sources on the planet. It includes atmospheric water, oceans, rivers, lakes, groundwater, ice and any other possible source.
The hydrosphere incorporates the water cycle, where water travels from one source to another, changing forms temporarily in between. Our Fragile Planet Hydrosphere: The Land and Its Uses Author: Dana Desonie, Ph.D. Grade Each book in the Our Fragile Planet series focuses on the causes and effects of climate change and human impact on the atmosphere, biosphere, climate, geosphere, the natural environment, hydrosphere, oceans, and polar regions.
Charles E. Schmidt College of Science Course Descriptions Biological Sciences Chemistry and Biochemistry Complex Systems and Brain Sciences.
Hydrosphere, discontinuous layer of water at or near Earth’s surface. It includes all liquid and frozen surface waters, groundwater held in soil and rock, and atmospheric water vapour.
Water is the most abundant substance at the surface of Earth.