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Curriculum for the CZ Blacks had originally been the three Rs acquired through rote memory, a course dictated to large classes. In the early s they allowed West Indian teachers in the all-black segregated schools to create a philosophy and curri- culum tailored to the black community's needs.
As such, schools became beacons that guided the Canal Zone's West Indians throughout the stormy s and s. Alfred Osborne stood out as the leader in the so-called colored schools. The son of a Canal Zone Principal, Osborne attended the inferior school system, but completed high school in Chicago and be- came a naturalized citizen.
Upon his return to the CZ in the early s, he supervised normal schools where he developed a curriculum guide and trained thirty-seven of the brightest first-generation black Panamanians to be teachers.
Alfred Osborne led what amounted to a philosophical reform of the colored let1 task 1 academic writing, and while his actual accomplishments remained small, his efforts galvanized community leaders who were able to turn back the tide of chauvinism and forged what became a politico-diplomatic alliance that would prove powerful in the years following WWII.
The tenets of West Indian integrationism included: This philosophy guided the first-generation blacks in the Canal Zone and tended to undermine the West Indian British culture brought from the Islands.
This subculture was considered necessary and, above all, a response to Panamanian chauvinism, particularly after the Constitution and to American mistreatment.
The new teachers, along with other community leaders, embraced the integrationist philosophy and disseminated it throughout the community. Their slogan "Progress Through Education," revealed that cultural and literary activities would dominate their agendas.
They hoped to create a healthy outlet for the energies of bright young people and a spirit of pride in Negro history and in their own community. Secretly, they hoped to obtain U. From to the INYC published a quarterly Bulletin whereby mem- bers contributed articles, essays, poetry, and information of public interest.
Canal authorities approved of the INYC and provided some facilities in the silver workers' clubhouse. The INYC helped pave the way for the first- generation of West Indian descent to assume leadership of the community after the war, and also convinced the authorities that the young people could be committed and serious and warranted better educational facilities.
Leonora Jump and George Westerman collected funds to buy 1, books emphasizing black studies and got the Canal authorities to open a public li- brary in La Boca for colored students.
Westerman also obtained autographed photos of fifty prominent Black Americans, which he personally hung on the walls of the library.
The graduates of the La Boca Normal School formed the Association of Co- lored Teachers and submitted a long petition calling for both academic and vocational secondary education. Simultaneously, they sponsored a series of lectures and held meetings in the silver town site to build support for high schools.
They had suffered from poor schooling as children yet had enjoyed the intellectual stimulation of La Boca Normal School. Their ideal came from U. No one told them that the books left out many aspects of American life.
They grew up with segregation and demeaning treatment by whites. The British colonial tradition, while in many ways as racist as the American, nonetheless, did not prepare the WIs and their children for the personal humiliations of CZ life.
Also, time and again pro- mised improvements did not materialize, as one governor after another broke the pledges of his predecessor. Behind each governor they could see the mocking smiles of Metal Trade Councils White union leaders who controlled day-to-day personnel policy. And the injustice continued!
The division between college- bound white children and trade-oriented blacks persisted, but Johnson had higher skills in mind for the latter. He raised the level of skills taught in high school and upgraded acade- mic disciplines as well He set up a summer recreation program for colored children The Ju- nior College curriculum consisted of wood and metal fabrication, motor maintenance service, printing, book binding, sewing and needlecraft, business and office procedures, and home- making skills and home economics where some of the teachers participated as well Johnson hoped that his graduates would move up into middle-level jobs with the Canal Johnson's promise of U.
Others were assiduously at work on degrees throughout the U. Once they qualified, however, most chose not to work in the segregated environment that prevailed on the CZ. Of the group that trained in the early s, only eight 0. Springer, MvL Mulcare, H. Butcher went back to the CZ schools, while others like E.
Gooden, Stewart and Ana Bennett got jobs in private schools in Panama, where their credentials, experience and English skills were highly prized.Sep 21, · System Based Authority were the following: Bureaucratic Authority (governmental), Political Authority, and Statewide Academic Oligarchy.
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