Columbus's voyage of discovery inaugurated a series of developments that would have vast consequences for both the Old World and the New. It transformed the diets of both the eastern and western hemispheres, helped initiate the Atlantic slave trade, spread diseases that had a devastating impact on Indian populations, and led to the establishment of European colonies across the Western Hemisphere.
This section identifies the factors--including rapid population growth, commerce, new learning, and the rise of competing nation-states--that encouraged Europeans to explore and colonize new lands.
European Expansion During the mid- and lateth century, Europe gained mastery over the world's ocean currents and wind patterns and began to create a European-centered world economy. Europeans developed astronomical instruments and trigonometrical tables to plot the location of the sun and stars; replaced oarsmen with sails; and began to better understand wind patterns and ocean currents.
The pioneer in European expansion was tiny Portugal, which, afterwas a united kingdom, and, unlike other European countries, was free from internal conflicts. Portugal focused its energies on Africa's western coast. It was Spain that would stumble upon the New World. Columbus underestimated the circumference of the earth by one-fourth and believed he could reach Japan by sailing 2, miles west from the Canary Islands.
Until his death in he insisted that he had reached Asia. But he quickly recognized that the new lands could be a source of wealth from precious minerals and sugar cane.
In return, Europeans introduced the Indians to wheat, oats, barley, and rice, as well as to grapes for wine and various melons. Europeans also brought with them domesticated animals including horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle. Even the natural environment was transformed.
Europeans cleared vast tracts of forested land and inadvertently introduced Old World weeds. The introduction of cattle, goats, horses, sheep, and swine also transformed the ecology as grazing animals ate up many native plants and disrupted indigenous systems of agriculture. The horse, extinct in the New World for ten thousand years, encouraged many farming peoples to become hunters and herders.
The exchange, however, was not evenly balanced. Killer diseases killed millions of Indians. The survivors were drawn into European trading networks that disrupted earlier patterns of life. Spain regarded the Indians as a usable labor force, while France treated the Indians primarily as trading partners.
The English, in contrast, adopted a policy known as plantation settlement: Afterhowever, other European countries began to emulate their example. By the end of the 16th century, a thousand French ships a year were engaged in the fur trade along the St.
Lawrence River and the interior, where the French constructed forts, missions, and trading posts. Relations between the French and Indians were less violent than in Spanish or English colonies. Virtually all these settlers were men--mostly traders or Jesuit priests--and many took Indian wives or concubines, helping to promote relations of mutual dependency.
Common trading interests also encouraged accommodation between the French and the Indians. English Colonization During the 17th century, when England established its first permanent colonies in North America, a crucial difference arose between the southern-most colonies, whose economy was devoted to production of staple crops, and the more diverse economies of the northern colonies.
Initially, settlers in the Chesapeake colonies of Maryland and Virginia relied on white indentured servants as their primary labor force, and at least some of the blacks who arrived in the region were able to acquire property. But between anda sharp distinction emerged between short-term servitude for whites and permanent slavery for blacks.
In Virginia, Bacon's Rebellion accelerated the shift toward slavery. By the end of the century slavery had become the basic labor force in the southern colonies. In New England, the economy was organized around small family farms and urban communities engaged in fishing, handicrafts, and Atlantic commerce, with most of the population living in small compact towns.
In Maryland and Virginia, the economy was structured around larger and much more isolated farms and plantations raising tobacco. In the Carolinas, economic life was organized around larger but less isolated plantations growing rice, indigo, coffee, cotton, and sugar.The Idea of self-discovery in the novel "A Separate Peace", is something very apparent in many of the characters.
All of the characters, Gene, Finny, Leper, find their true selves by the end of the story. self-discovery Through Adversity Essays: Over , self-discovery Through Adversity Essays, self-discovery Through Adversity Term Papers, self-discovery Through Adversity Research Paper, Book Reports.
ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access. Year 12 English Advanced Discovery Short Stories Through Term 1 , Year 12 English Advanced have been studying “Discovery” as part of their HSC Area of Study.
Trace the routes of the major land explorers of the United States, the distances traveled by explorers, and the Atlantic trade routes that linked Africa, the West Indies, the British colonies, and Europe.
Discovery Essay. Discovery Essay Discovery inhibits the ability to embrace new beginnings and accept a sense of change whether it is found or forced upon an individual. The places you travel and the people you meet can emotionally revolutionize a self-discovery through .
“America Through European Eyes [is] an indispensable starting point for anyone wishing to understand how British and French attitudes to America have changed, and yet, paradoxically, have remained consistent since at least the early 19th century.