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Overview[ edit ] Penal substitution derives from the idea that divine forgiveness must satisfy divine justice, that is, that God Atonement war essay not willing or able to simply forgive sin without first requiring a satisfaction for it.
It states that God gave himself in the person of his Son, Jesus Christ, to suffer the death, punishment and curse due to fallen humanity as the penalty for our sin.
Important theological concepts about penal substitution depend on the doctrine of the Trinity. Those who believe that Jesus was himself God, in line with the doctrine of the Trinity, believe that God took the punishment upon himself rather than putting it on someone else.
In other words, the doctrine of union with Christ affirms that by taking the punishment upon himself Jesus fulfills the demands of justice not for an unrelated third party but for those identified with him.
If, in the penal substitution understanding of the atonement, the death of Christ deals with sin and injustice, his resurrection is the renewal and restoration of righteousness. Key biblical references upon which penal substitution is based include: But he was wounded for our transgressions, Atonement war essay was bruised for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that made us whole, and with his stripes we are healed.
All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all It was the will of the LORD to bruise him; he has put him to grief; when he makes himself an offering for sin By his knowledge shall the righteous one, my servant, make many to be accounted righteous; and he shall bear their iniquities.
He did this to show his righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over the sins previously committed; it was to prove at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he justifies the one who has faith in Jesus.
Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us - for it is written, 'Cursed be every one who hangs on a tree. He disarmed the principalities and powers and made a public example of them, triumphing over them in him.
Although penal substitution is often associated with Anselm of Canterbury, he predates its formal development within later Reform theology. It is therefore doubted even among Reform theologians whether his 'satisfaction' theory is strictly equivalent.
Many trace its origin to Calvin, but it was more concretely formulated by the Reformed theologian Charles Hodge. Traditionally a belief in penal substitution is often regarded as a hallmark of the evangelical faith and is included as an article of faith by many but not all evangelical organizations today.
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April Learn how and when to remove this template message Advocates[ citation needed ] of penal substitution argue that the concept is both biblically based and rooted in the historical traditions of the Christian Church although others say that the theory was developed later, in the Reformation period  .
Critics, however, argue that the theory of penal substitution is solely a later development, only forming part of orthodox Christian thought during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th-century,       being advocated by Martin Luther  and Calvin.
On the other hand, those teaching an interpretation of the Cross consistent with penal substitution reject such a characterization of their beliefs.
Their theory teaches that Christ's cosmic defeat of the devil was accomplished because Jesus suffered the penalty for mankind's sins. Under this view, the nature of Satan's authority over humanity comes from mankind's problem of sin, but by Jesus' cross, the guilt of sin before God is paid for and erased, the devil has no more power over the person saved.
Scholars vary widely regarding how much they are willing to see precursors to penal substitution in the writings of some of the Early Church fathers.JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Keller before The Veritas Forum, interviewed by Martin Bashir.
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This is similar to when the prior wounded beast, the Antichrist of the time. In recent decades, the role of deism in the American founding has become highly charged. Evangelical and/or “traditional” Protestants have claimed that Christianity was central to the early history of the United States and that the nation was founded on Judeo-Christian principles.
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