Pueblo Indian culture has flourished in the American Southwest for thousands of years. Who are the Pueblo Indians?
Archaeologists have found musical instruments, jewelry, ceramics, and ceremonial items, indicating people in Great Houses were elite, wealthier families. They hosted indoor burials, where gifts were interred with the dead, often including bowls of food and turquoise beads.
Most apparent is their sheer bulk; complexes averaged more than rooms each, and some enclosed up to rooms. Plaza areas were almost always girt with edifices of sealed-off rooms or high walls. Rooms were often organized into suites, with front rooms larger than rear, interior, and storage rooms or areas.
Ceremonial structures known as kivas were built in proportion to the number of rooms in a pueblo.
One small kiva was built for roughly every 29 rooms. T-shaped doorways and stone lintels marked all Chacoan kivas. Though simple and compound walls were often used, great houses were primarily constructed of core-and-veneer walls: Walls were then covered in a veneer of small sandstone pieces, which were pressed into a layer of binding mud.
They led toward small outlier sites and natural features within and beyond the canyon limits. These were excavated into a smooth, leveled surface in the bedrock or created through the removal of vegetation and soil.
The Ancestral Pueblo residents of Chaco Canyon cut large ramps and stairways into the cliff rock to connect the roadways on the ridgetops of the canyon to the sites on the valley bottoms. The largest roads, constructed at the same time as many of the great house sites between and ADare: Simple structures like berms and walls are found sometimes aligned along the courses of the roads.
Also, some tracts of the roads lead to natural features such as springs, lakes, mountain tops, and pinnacles. These roads converge at Pueblo Alto and from there lead north beyond the canyon limits. The system was first discovered at the end of the 19th century.
It was not excavated and studied until the s. The economic purpose of the Chaco road system is shown by the presence of luxury items at Pueblo Bonito and elsewhere in the canyon.
Items such as macawsturquoisemarine shells, which are not part of this environment, in addition to imported vessels distinguished by design, prove that the Chaco had long-distance commercial relations with other distant regions. The widespread use of timber in Chacoan constructions was based on a large and easy transportation system, as this resource is not locally available.
Through analysis of various strontium isotopes, archaeologists have realized that much of the timber that composes Chacoan construction came from a number of distant mountain ranges, a finding that also supported the economic significance of the Chaco Road.
According to modern Pueblo people, this road represents the connection to the sipapu, the place of emergence of the ancestors or a dimensional doorway.
During their journey from the sipapu to the world of the living, the spirits stop along the road and eat the food left for them by the living. Many ceremonial structures were deliberately built along, a north-south axis alignment. The main buildings at Pueblo Bonito, for example, are arranged according to this direction.
They likely served as central places for ceremonial journeys across the landscape. Isolated structures located on the roadsides, as well as on top of the canyon cliffs and ridge crests, have been interpreted as shrines related to these activities. These have been proposed to be part of pilgrimage paths followed during ritual ceremonies.
Since Fire Temple was at least partially built to conform to the dimensions of its cliff alcove, it is neither round in form nor truly subterranean like other structures defined as kivas.
Throughout the southwest Ancestral Puebloan region, and at Mesa Verde, the best-known site for the large number of well-preserved cliff dwellings, housing, defensive, and storage complexes were built in shallow caves and under rock overhangs along canyon walls.
The structures contained within these alcoves were mostly blocks of hard sandstone, held together and plastered with adobe mortar.
Specific constructions had many similarities, but were generally unique in form due to the individual topography of different alcoves along the canyon walls. In marked contrast to earlier constructions and villages on top of the mesas, the cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde reflected a region-wide trend during the 13th century toward the aggregation of growing regional populations into close, highly defensible quarters.
Common Pueblo architectural forms, including kivas, towers, and pit-houses are included in this area, but the space constrictions of these alcoves resulted in a far denser concentration of their populations.
Mug House, a typical cliff dwelling of the period, was home to around people who shared 94 small rooms and eight kivas, built right up against each other and sharing many of their walls.
Builders in these areas maximized space in any way they could and no areas were considered off-limits to construction. This has been taken by some archaeologists, such as Stephen Leksonas evidence of the continuing reach of the Chaco Canyon elite system, which had seemingly collapsed around a century before.
Studies of skeletal remains show that this growth was due to increased fertility rather than decreased mortality.The Ancient Puebloans (Anasazi) were a prehistoric Native American civilization centered around the present day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States.
The ancestors of the modern Pueblo peoples, including the Hopi, Zuni and the Puebloans, do not prefer the term “Anasazi.” Often. Ancestral Puebloans: The Southwest American Indians Essays Words | 10 Pages. Southwest American Indians "Man corn", warfare and atlatls were not .
Anasazi is quite a rare and popular topic for writing an essay, but it certainly is in our the Ancestral Puebloans, the Anasazi inhabited the Four Corners region in Southwest America (Hillerman 4). The culture possesses the most distinctive range of structure among all the different cultures on the native Southwest American Indians.
The climate was very warm and humid around northern Arizona. Ancient Pueblo People, or Ancestral Puebloans is a preferred term for the cultural group of people often known as Anasazi who are the.
Ancestral Puebloans: The Southwest American Indians Essays Words | 10 Pages. Southwest American Indians "Man corn", warfare and atlatls were not . Anasazi Timeline - Chronology of the Ancestral Pueblo People.
Search the site GO. Social Sciences. Anasazi Timeline - Chronology of the Ancestral Pueblo People The History of the Anasazi in a Nutshell. Share Flipboard Email the Architectural Heart of the American Southwest.